【黑龙江专升本】成人高考复习资料英语--考试题型专讲专练四:阅读理解

黑龙江成人高考网 发布时间:2018-07-14 14:56:20

考试题型专讲专练四:阅读理解

1)题型特点

阅读理解题主要测考生把握文章主题思想和大意的能力,对文章中的重要情节和主要事实的理解程度,对文章的格调、作者的观点态度等的推理判断能力。专升本的阅读理解部分由5篇短文构成 每篇短文的平均长度为300词左右,5篇短文共20个小题,每小题3分共60分,阅读理解题的短文是一般性的社会,文化,经济,科普,和日常生活等等方面的内容。丰富的课外知识有时也有意外的帮助作用,文章的体裁包括记叙文、议论文、说明文和应用文等。这部分是整个考试占分比例最高的部分,占总成绩的40%,所以是复习的重点。

 

2)解题步骤

(1)大致浏览文章(两到三分钟),迅速判断文章题材,记叙文要找出文章的四要素,抓住故事情节;议论文和说明文偏重首段尾段侧重首尾句,因为这些部分往往是作者所要谈及的论点,主题或中心思想,抓住了主干,那么细节问题就会迎刃而解了。

(2)带着问题细读文章,只关注与问题相关的部分。把问题分成三类,对于不同的问题题型有针对性地采用不同的解题方法。细节题在文章中能直接找到答案的,争取全部答对;主旨大意题和词汇题合理运用各种判断方式争取答对一半以上;推理题和作者态度题尽力而为。

 

3)阅读理解题型及相应答题技巧

(1)细节题(数量最大、最容易得分的题型)

A.填空型细节题

例如:

a. The truck owners were angry because              

b. The books preferred by the author should be those      

c. The increasing number of flights leads to the fact that      .

B.疑问型细节题

例如:

a. Why are the porters considered the most powerful people in expensive hotels?

b. Why didn't the truck owners fight to get away the melons?

c. According to the passage, which is one of the necessary conditions to run a bookshop?

解题技巧: 对词法

(2)主旨大意题 (一般一篇文章只出一道,往往是第一题或最后一题)

例如:

a. The best title for this passage can be      

b. The passage is mainly about     .

c. Which of the following may best serve as the title of this passage?

d. In the passage, the writer mainly argues that      

e. What’s the main idea of this passage?

解题技巧:

a.反复阅读文章的开头段和结尾段,找出全文的关键句。

b.所选的选项一定要包括文章中重复最多的词或词组,如果两个以上选项都包括再进一步进行对比排除。

(3) 词意判断题

例如:

a. The word ‘…’ in the …. Paragraph can be replaced by    

b. Which of the following words is closed meaning to the word “…”(Line…,Para….)

c. The word “…” in Para… means       .

解题技巧:根据构词法、上下文使用排除法。

(4)推理判断题

a. The passage implies (infers, concludes…)

b. It can be infer from the third paragraph that    .

c. It is implied in the passage that     .

d. The passage shows that     

e. What can be inferred from the passage?

f. We can learn from this passage that        

解题技巧:主要使用排除法和推理法

(5)作者态度题

a. The writer’s attitude towards … is       .

b. What is the author’s attitude toward ….?

解题技巧:综合分析判断,必要时抓住关键词。

4)注意事项

(1)一定不要逐字逐句翻译文章,这是效率最低的答题方法,有些问题用这种方法反而容易答错,因为抓不住主题。

(2)不要主观臆断,以自己的观念或理解答题,要以文章中出现的事实为根据。

(3)分不同情况对待生词。和问题有关的需要理解的主要词汇要想办法去猜,没有关系或者在与问题相关的句子里不是主要成分的单词也可以忽略不计;使用对词法解题的题目即使不认识也没关系。

 

5)阅读理解专项练习:

A

The African elephant, the largest lanimal now alive, is in danger of extinction. 1The reasons are very similar to those in other cases of near – extinction; 2the beast is the source of a highly valued commodity – in this case, ivory – the animal’s habitat(居住地) is being more more fenced in by human settlements. 4East African elephants are most immediately threatened because they are victims of an illegal trade in ivory. 3At the same time, a growing human population has forced all African elephants back into once remote parks, where elephant density has in many cases exceeded the natural food supply.

1. The author suggests that the causes of animal extinction are _____.

A. peculiar to each group of animals

B. similar in most cases

C. dependent on the climate in which the animal lives

D. dependent on the size of the animal

答案:B

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

2. The author implies that an animal is more likely to become extinct if it _____.

A. is far from human settlements

B. is native to East Africa

C. is a large lanimal

D. produces something of value to human beings

答案:D

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

3. Which of the following has most seriously affected the African elephant?

A. Its large size.

B. The lowered reproduction rate.

C. The expansion of human settlements.

D. The changing climate.

答案:C

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

4. The East African elephant may become extinct sooner than other African elephants because of ______.

A. an unlawful ivory trade           

B. the high cost of fences

C. the remoteness of its habitat        

D. its huge size

答案:A

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

 

B

Shopping is not as simple as you may think!There are all sorts of tricks at play each time we reach out for that particular br(品牌) of product on the shelf.

5Coloring,for example,varies according to what the producers are trying to sell. Health foods are packaged (包装) in greens,yellows or browns because we think of these as healthy colors. Ice cream packets are often blue expensive goods,like chocolates,are gold or silver.

When some kind of pain killer was brought out recently, researchers found that the colors turned the customers off 6because they made the product look weak ineffective. Eventually,it came on the market in a dark blue white package-blue because we think of it as safe,white as calm.

The size of a product can attract a shopper. But quite often a bottle doesn't contain as much as it appears to.

It is believed that the better-known companies spend,on average, 70 per cent of the total cost of the product itself on packaging!

The most successful producers know that it's not enough to have a good product. The founder of Pears soap,who for 25 years has used pretty little girls to promote (推销) their goods,came to the conclusion: “Any fool can make soap,but it takes a genius (天才) to sell it.”

5. Which of the following may trick a shopper into buying a product according to the passage?

A. The cost of its package.

B. The price of the product。

C. The color of its package.

D. The brname of the product.

答案:C

解析:疑问型细节题,对词法。

6. The underlined part “the colors turned the customers off” (in Para. 3 ) means that the colors _____.

A. attracted the customers strongly

B. had weak effects on the customers

C. tricked the customers into shopping

D. caused the customers to lose interest

答案:B

解析:推理判断题,对词法。

7. How many tricks are mentioned in the passage in selling products?

A. one       

B. two         

C. three       

D. four

答案:C

解析:推理判断题。

8. Which of the following would be the best title for this text?

A. Choice of Good Products

B. Disadvantages of Products

C. Effect of Packaging on Shopping

D. Shopping Tricks

答案:D

解析:主旨大意题,推理判断。

 

C

9In the past, people who graduated from college felt proud of their academic achievements confident that their degree would help them to find a good job.

However, in the past four years the job market has changed dramatically. This year’s college graduates are facing one of the worst job markets. For example, 10Ryan Stewart, a graduate of san Jose State University, got a degree in religious studies, but he has not gotten any job offers. He points out that many people already working are getting laid off don’t have jobs, so it’s even harder for new college graduates to find jobs.

Four years ago, the future looked bright for his class of 2006. 11There were many high-tech(“dotcom”) job opportunities, graduates received many job offers, they were able to get jobs with high salaries benefits such as health insurance paid vacations. However, “Times have changed. It’s a new market.” according to an officer of the university.

The officer says students who do find jobs started preparing two years ago. They worked during summer vacations, they have had several short-time jobs, they majored in fields that are still paying well, such as accounting or nursing.

Even teaching is not a secure profession now. 12Ryan Stewart wanted to be a teacher, but instead he will probably go back to school in order to become a college teacher. He thinks college teaching could be a good career even in a bad economy.

In conclusion, these days a college degree does not automatically lead to a good job with a high salary. Some students can only hope that the value of their degree will increase in the future.

9. What did a college degree mean to people in the past?

A. It was a proof of their professional skills.

B. It would guarantee their quick promotion.

C. It built up their confidence in the job market.

D. It would help them to start an academic career.

答案:C

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

10. Ryan Stewart has not got any job offer because_______.

A. there are too many graduates of his major

B. he wants to find a job with very high salary

C. he has not received a degree in the university

D. the job market has changed greatly since 2002

答案:D

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

11. According to the passage, ___ had the best job prospects in 2002.

A. computer science  

B. accounting  

C. teaching  

D. nursing

答案:A

解析:推理判断题。

12. Why does Ryan Stewart want to be a college teacher?

A. Teaching jobs are well-paid.

B. He majored in teaching in the university.

C. College teaching is less challenging than high-tech jobs.

D. College teaching career won’t be influenced by economy.

答案:D

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

 

D

The Sahara Festival is a celebration of the very recent past. 13The three-day event is not fixed to the same dates each year, but generally takes place in November or December. It is well attended by tourists, but even better attended by locals.

During the opening ceremonies, after the official greetings from the government leaders, people who attend the festival begin to march smartly before the viewing stands, white camels transport their riders across the sands. Horsemen from different nations display their beautiful clothes their fine horsemanship. One following another, groups of musicians dancers from all over the Sahara take their turn to show off their wonderful traditional culture. Groups of men in blue yellow play horns beat drums as they dance in different designs. On their knees in the sand, a group of women in long dark dresses dance with their hair: their long, dark, shiny hair is thrown back forth in the wind to the rhythm of their dance.

The local visiting Italian dogs are anxious to run after hares. The crowd is on its feet for the camel races. Camels riders run far into the distance, then return to the finish Line in front of the cheering people.

Towards the evening, there comes the grand finale of the opening day, an extremely exciting horserace. All the riders run very fast on horseback. Some riders hang off the side of their saddles. Some even ride upside down -- their legs feet straight up in the air -- all at full speed. Others rush down the course together, men arm in arm, on different horses. On on they went. SO fast so wonderful!

13. The Sahara Festival is a festival which________.

A. has a very long history in North Africa

B. is held in the same place on the same day

C. is attended mainly by the people in the Sahara

D. is celebrated mostly by travelers from different countries

答案:D

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

14. Before the races begin, ________ take part in the activities during the opening ceremonies.

A. musicians, dancers, horses hares

B. camel riders, musicians, dogs hares

C. horsemen, dancers, camels dogs

D. musicians, officials, camels horses

答案:B

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

15. The underlined word "finale" in the fourth paragraph most probably means the ________of the opening day.

A. first part    

B. middle        

C. last part       

D. whole

答案:C

解析:词意判断题, 对词法。

16. This passage mainly tells readers_______.

A. what happens on the opening day of the Sahara Festival

B. how people celebrate during the three-day Sahara Festival

C. what takes place at the closing ceremonies of the Sahara Festival

D. how animals race on the first the last days of the Sahara Festival

答案:A

解析:主旨大意题,推理判断。

 

E.

Like many lovers of books,Mary her husband,Richard Goldman,seldom walked past a bookstore without stopping to look inside. They often talked of opening their own store one day.

17When Mary was hospitalized with heart trouble in 1989, they decided it was time to get serious. Richard,who worked for a business company,was eager to work for himself,Mary needed to slow down from her demanding job.

They started by talking to bookstore owners researching the industry. “We knew it had to be a specialty store because we couldn‘t match the big chains dollar for dollar,” says Mary. One figure caught her attention: She’d read somewhere that roughly 20 percent of books sold were mysteries (推理小说), many buyers spent more $300 a year on books. She Richard were themselves mystery readers.

On Halloween 1992,they opened the Mystery Lovers Bookshop Café near their home. With three children in college,the couple could not spend all the family‘s money to start a shop. To cover the $100,000 cost, they drew some of their savings,borrowed from relatives from an bank.

19The store merely broke even in its first year, with only $120,000 in sales. But Mary was always coming up with new ways to attract customers. The shop had a coffee bar it offered gifts to mystery lovers served dinners for book clubs that met in the store. She also invited dozens of writers to discuss their stories.

Today Mystery Lovers makes sales of about $420,000 a year. After paying taxes, business costs the six part-time sales clerks, Richard Mary together earn about $34,000.

20“The job you love may not go hin hwith a million-dollar income,” says Richard. “This has always been about an enjoyable life for ourselves,not about making a lot of money.”

17.When Mary was in hospital,the couple realized that ____.

A. they had to put their plan into practice

B. health was more important than wealth

C. heart trouble was a serious illness

D. they both needed to stop working

答案:B

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

18. After Mary got well from her illness they began _____.

A. to study industrial management

B. to buy read more mystery books

C. to do market research on book business

D. to work harder to save money for the bookstore

答案:C

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

19.How did their bookstore do in the first year?

A. They had to borrow money to keep it going.

B. They made just enough to cover all the costs.

C. They succeeded in earning a lot of money.

D. They failed though they worked hard.

答案:D

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。

20. According to Richard,the main purpose of running the bookstore is _____.

A. to pay for their children‘s education

B. to get to know more writers

C. to set up more bookstores

D. to do what they like to do

答案:D

解析:填空型细节题。对词法。